Best answer: theoretical yield is always based on whatever the limiting reactant in the reaction is the full yield equation is: actual yield / theoretical yield x 100 so in this case i assume your nitrating agent is in excess this means your limiting reactant is the napthalene. Nitration at position 1 produces a carbocation that has 7 total resonance structures, 4 of which appear to preserve the aromaticity of the second ring nitration at position 2 produces a carbocation that has 6 total resonance structures, 2 of which appear to preserve the aromaticity of the second ring. Nitration with nitronium salts in organic solvents, toluene and benzene, as well as naphthalene, behave similarly to xylenes and highermethylbenzenes in showing lowsubstrate selectiv. Introduction naphthalene is an aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal car or crude oil naphthalene is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, fuels, and dyes it is also used as an insecticide that works by turning directly from a solid into a toxic vapor this process is called sublimation. Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents comparison of data with perrin's electrochemical nitration [perrin, c l (1977) j am chem soc 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration.
Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents comparison of data with perrin's electrochemical nitration [perrin, c l (1977) j am chem soc 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. The nitration of naphthalene (naph) at a pt electrode in aqueous nano 2 solutions both in the absence and presence of a non-ionic surfactant, brij®35 (polyoxyethylene (23) dodecanol), has been studied. Nitration of naphthalene wed 2/25/2015 lab report # 1 abstract: the purpose of this experiment was to nitrate naphthalene with nitronium ion, which is formed at low concentration from a reaction of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula c 10 h 8 it is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 008.
In the chart above, all the resonance structures are shown for each of the four possible addition products to a naphthalene bearing an electron-withdrawing group at the alpha position. Irradiation of hno2 induces (no nitration by hno2 in the dark, nitration not initiated by naphthalene nitration at a far higher rate than irradiation of nitrogen dioxide upon nitrite photolysis) phenol behaves nitrite, as already observed in the case of benzene (24. Naphthalene series • two different mononitro derivatives, are generally formed • the alpha and beta compounds, also known as 1- nitronaphthalene and 2-nitronaphthalene • upon nitration , the first nitro group enters almost into the alpha or 1 position • a second nitro group enters into position 5 or 8 • nitration in organic. For example, the nitration of naphthalene proceeds to give mainly 1-nitronaphthalene: this selectivity can be rationalised by drawing the resonance structures for intermediates produced by attack of the electrophile at the 1- and 2-positions.
What is the mechanism (electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions) for the following reaction : the reaction goes as follows: naphthalene (mixed with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid) yields -- 1 - nitronaphthalene or 2-nitronaphthalene. Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound more loosely the term also is applied incorrectly to the different process of forming nitrate esters between alcohols and nitric acid, as occurs in the synthesis of nitroglycerin. Electrophilic nitration and friedel-crafts acylation reactions introduce deactivating, meta-directing substituents on an aromatic ring the smallest such hydrocarbon is naphthalene naphthalene is stabilized by resonance nucleophilic substitution, elimination & addition reactions of benzene derivatives 1 substitution.
I have discovered a method of nitration having broad applicability which by way of illustration, produces 1- nitronaphthalene with substantially non of the 2-nitro isomer, and which, when used in the dinitration of naphthalene, produces the 1,5-dinitronaphthalene with substantially none of the 1,8-isomer. The kinetic equation for the nitrous acid catalysed nitration of naphthalene in aqueous mixtures of sulphuric acid and acetic acid has at least two kinetic terms: one first order with respect to naphthalene and one second order with respect to naphthalene. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration olah ga(1), narang sc, olah ja author information: (1)institute of hydrocarbon chemistry, department of chemistry, university of southern california, los angeles, california 90007.
3) 4) the nitration of naphthalene yields 1-nitro (and rarely 2 nitro) naphthalene because the alpha site is preferred references: pavia, donald, gary lampman, george kriz, and randall engel introduction to organic laboratory techniques: a microscale approach. A new nitration of naphthalene affords as major products 1,4-disubstituted naphthalenes and as minor products 1,2-disubstituted naphthalenes by use of ceric ammonium nitrate suspended on silica gel, or in homogeneous solution, nitration of naphthalene in the presence of alcohols, sodium- or tetrabutyl ammonium- nitrite and acid gives alkoxynitronaphthalenes. Nitration of naphthalene purpose of experiment: the purpose of this experiment was to nitrate naphthalene with nitronium ion, which is formed at low concentration from a reaction of nitric acid and sulfuric acid naphthalene is a house product used.